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Doctoral Regulations

The requirements of each doctoral program are described in the Programs sections of the Calendar. A doctoral student is governed by the general University Regulations section of this Calendar as well as the following regulations, which are specific to doctoral students.

GENERAL ADMISSION REQUIREMENTS

Application for admission to a doctoral program must be made to the Faculty of Graduate Studies, Lakehead University by February 1. As an exception, applications for the Psychology PhD programs must be made by January 15, and applications for the Education PhD must be made by November 15. Late applications may be considered for admission, but may not be considered for funding.

Applicants for admission must be graduates of a recognized university and show evidence of scholarly achievement. Except where otherwise stated in the Admission Requirements of a particular program, students must have a Masters degree or its equivalent with an academic average as specified by the academic unit/program. An applicant holding a degree other than one in the discipline area to which admission is sought will be considered on the basis of Master's courses taken and academic standing. A Qualifying Year may be required at the Masters level to meet the admission standards. Courses taken as part of a Qualifying Year cannot be used as credit towards a doctoral degree.

Applicants applying from a university other than Lakehead University must forward official transcripts of their university record and may be required to take an examination, such as the Graduate Record Examination (GRE).

Meeting the minimum requirements does not guarantee admission. No candidate will be admitted unless the academic unit/program recommends admission. All applicants will be advised of their admission status in writing by the Faculty of Graduate Studies.

ADVANCED STANDING

With the consent of the academic unit, applicants may be granted Advanced Standing for up to one graduate level full course equivalent at another institution. No advanced credit from previous study will be given for undergraduate courses. Courses credited towards a previous degree or Qualifying Year cannot be considered for Advanced Standing. No credit will be given for a course with a grade lower than 'B'.

Requests for Advanced Standing must be submitted and approved at the time of admission to the program. To be considered for Advanced Standing, students must submit a formal request to the Faculty of Graduate Studies, along with the official transcript and institutionally prepared course description(s).

 
PROFICIENCY IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE

 
The language of instruction at Lakehead University is English. Students whose first language is not English must demonstrate that they can cope with the language demands of an English language university.
 
Applicants whose native language is not English, and who cannot verify having studied in an English language school system for more than three full years, will be required to present proof of English facility by:
1. Achieving appropriate standing on one of the following tests:

 TEST

 Minimum Score

TOEFL - Test of English as a Foreign Language
Lakehead University's Institution Code for TOEFL is 0888.
 
TOEFL paper based 550 (with no component score less than 50)
TOEFL computer based 213 (with no component score less than 17)
TOEFL internet based 80 (with no component score less than 19)
IELTS - International English Language Testing System 6.5 (no individual band score less than 6.0)
MELAB - Michigan English Language Assessment Battery 85
CAEL - Canadian Academic English Language Assessment 60
Or  

2. Successfully completing the English Language Program (ELP) at Lakehead University. For details regarding the ELP go to
https://www.lakeheadu.ca/academics/other-programs/english-language

 
Certain academic units may require higher scores. Meeting the minimum requirements does not guarantee admission to Lakehead University.
 
Where the language of instruction and examination in undergraduate studies has been uniformly in English, official documentation from the institution indicating that the primary medium of instruction is English must be submitted upon request. This official documentation must come directly from the institution in the form of an official letter that states that the student's medium of instruction was English for three full years or more. This letter must be signed by the institution's Registrar or Chief Officer. This letter must also bear the original stamp or seal of the institution.
 


READMISSION TO A GRADUATE PROGRAM

Students applying to enter a graduate program, who have previously withdrawn from a graduate program, or have exceeded their period of study, must apply for re-admission to the program and pay the application fee. Students will be credited with previous courses completed and work undertaken towards completion of program requirements at the discretion of the academic unit/program. The academic unit/program may decline to allow previously completed courses to be credited towards the graduate program applied for and/or may require a previous dissertation topic to be changed in whole or in part. The decision to re-admit a student is made by the academic unit/program. 

The academic regulations and program requirements in effect at the time of re-admission shall apply. If the student is returning to his/her previous program, and had not exceeded his/her period of study, the remaining terms will be available upon readmission. The allowable time-to-completion will include all previous terms in the program. Students who have reached their time limit in the program at the point of re-admission must complete the program within three consecutive terms and will not be eligible for Time Extensions or Leaves of Absence, nor for further re-admissions.

Graduate Assistantship (GA) eligibility is attached to a student rather than the program being studied and students may only hold a doctoral GA position to a maximum of six terms in total. GA eligibility does not reset with the completion of or withdrawal from a doctoral program. Students who completed a doctoral degree at Lakehead University and are applying to a new doctoral program, students who withdraw from a doctoral program and subsequently are readmitted to the same program, or students who partially complete a doctoral program and are admitted to a new doctoral program are only eligible to hold GA positions up to six terms regardless of the number of admissions (or readmissions) to doctoral programs.

REGISTRATION STATUS

Full-Time Graduate Student

A full-time graduate student must:
1. be designated by the University as a full-time graduate student;
2. be pursuing his or her studies full-time; and
3. normally, be geographically available and visit the campus regularly.

Without forfeiting full-time status, a graduate student, while still under supervision, may be absent from the university (e.g. visiting libraries, doing field work, attending a graduate course at another institution) provided that, if any such period of absence exceeds four weeks in any one term, written evidence shall be available in the Office of Graduate Studies to the effect that the absence has the approval of the supervisor and the Graduate Coordinator of the academic unit.

Graduate Student Employment

In accordance with the Ontario Council on Graduate Studies policy, the University recommends that a full-time graduate student will normally not be employed for more than an average of ten hours per week for any term. When the student is employed as a Graduate Assistant, the ten hours per week should represent the total time spent by the student in connection with this appointment. Requests for exceptions to this rule must be approved by the Dean of Graduate Studies.

REGISTRATION AND SELECTION OF COURSES

A student is not permitted to register as a doctoral student until the application for admission has been approved. A graduate student proceeding to a degree is governed by the academic regulations and program requirements in effect in the term of admission.

Before registering, students proceeding to a doctoral degree must arrange their program with the assistance of the Graduate Coordinator of the program. Graduate students must complete all registration and withdrawal from courses by the published deadlines in the Academic Schedule of Dates. Late registration fees will apply after these dates. Students wishing to change their program or withdraw from their graduate program must formally request that change on a "Graduate Request for Program Change/Withdrawal" form.

The calendar year is divided into three terms: Fall Term (September-December); Winter Term (January-April) and Spring/Summer Term (May-August). Graduate students registering for the first time normally commence their program in the Fall Term. However, in some academic units students are permitted to commence their studies in January or May. An exception is the joint PhD in Education with a start time of July.

Registration is not complete until tuition and activity fees have been paid (or arrangements have been made to pay all fees) by the deadlines published in the University Fees, Fees Payment Information section of this Calendar. Default in fee payment may result in a student being de-registered. A student with amounts owing to the University will not be permitted to register in future sessions nor to receive a transcript or record of academic progress.

CONTINUANCE OF REGISTRATION

All graduate students must maintain continuous registration from initial registration until they have completed the requirements of their program, including submission of the final dissertation copies to the Faculty of Graduate Studies. It is the student's responsibility to ensure he/she is registered by the appropriate deadline for each term. Students who have failed to register by the deadline and have not applied for a Leave of Absence will be registered in a University placeholder course and will be assessed appropriate fees.

Students who have failed to register for two consecutive terms will be considered to have left the program and will be withdrawn. Students wanting to complete their program must apply for re-admission and pay the application fee.

WITHDRAWAL FROM PROGRAM

Students wanting to withdraw from a graduate program must complete and submit a "Graduate Request for Program Change/Withdrawal" form to the Office of the Registrar. Students who fail to do so will be registered in an University placeholder course and will be assessed appropriate fees.

PERIOD OF STUDY

Doctoral Programs

Biotechnology:
Students are expected to complete all requirements within a minimum of nine terms (three years) to a maximum of 12 terms (four years) of continuous full-time registration. Candidates must meet a minimum residency of three terms, two of which must be consecutive.

Clinical Psychology:
Students are expected to complete all requirements within a minimum of nine terms (three years) prior to the internship year, to a maximum of 15 terms (five years) of continuous full-time registration. Candidates must meet a minimum residency of nine terms, all of which must be consecutive.

Psychological Science:
Students are expected to complete all requirements within a minimum of nine terms (three years) to a maximum of 15 terms (five years) of continuous full-time registration. Candidates must meet a minimum residency of nine terms, all of which must be consecutive.

Educational Studies:
Students are expected to complete all requirements within a minimum of nine terms (three years) up to a maximum of 18 terms (six years) of continuous full-time registration. Candidates must meet a minimum residency of four terms, two of which must be consecutive.

Forest Sciences:
Students are expected to complete all requirements within a minimum of nine terms (three years) up to a maximum of 12 terms (four years) of continuous full-time registration. Candidates must meet a minimum residency of three terms, two of which must be consecutive.

Chemistry and Materials Science:
Students are expected to complete all requirements within a minimum of nine terms (three years) to a maximum of 12 terms (four years) of continuous full-time registration. Candidates must meet a minimum residency of three terms, two of which must be consecutive.

LEAVE OF ABSENCE

A Leave of Absence from a graduate program may be requested for exceptional circumstances.

A Maternal/Paternal Leave of Absence will be granted to students who are either biological or adoptive parents, while they are caring for a newborn or newly-adopted child of any age. These leaves will be approved up to a three term limit per pregnancy or adoption. There is no maximum number of Maternal/Paternal leaves.

Requests for Leaves of Absence will be considered on an individual basis by the Leave/Extension Committee, which will in turn make a recommendation to the Faculty of Graduate Studies Council. The decision to accept, vary, or reject a request lies solely at the discretion of the Faculty of Graduate Studies Council, without right of appeal. 

When a request for a Leave of Absence is granted, a "stop-the-clock" policy will prevail with respect to payment of tuition fees, period of study, and other affected graduate degree requirements.

Students cannot be registered in any term that is requested as a Leave of Absence.

The request must demonstrate that the situation which has arisen is temporary and will be bridged by the Leave. ADEQUATE DETAILS supporting the request must be provided on the form. Requests will be returned to the academic unit if the information provided is insufficient.

A request for health reasons must be accompanied by a note from a licensed/registered health practitioner. A student returning from a health-related Leave of Absence must provide a note from a licensed/registered health practitioner, stating that the student is able to resume studies.

A request for a retroactive Leave will not normally be considered. The Leave of Absence Request must normally be submitted in or during the term PRIOR TO the Leave. Leaves of Absence are granted per term and therefore start and end at the beginning and end of a term.

A student is eligible for a maximum of three Leaves of Absence (four at the PhD level) in addition to an unlimited number of Maternal/Paternal leaves, provided that no single Maternal/Paternal Leave extends beyond three consecutive terms. If additional time away is required (more than the three-term limit, four terms for PhD students), the student is advised to withdraw from the program and apply for re-admission at a time more suitable for completion.

While on a Leave of Absence the student will not have access to University faculty, laboratory or other facilities. Library access will be restricted to that of the general public. A graduate student who is on a Leave of Absence is not eligible for funding.

After returning from a Leave of Absence, the student must be registered for at least the one term immediately following the Leave of Absence.

All personal information in requests for Leaves of Absence and in all related communications will be held in strict confidence and disclosed only to University faculty, staff and agents who need the information to carry out their duties, or as required by law.

To see the Leave of Absence request form go to:
http://www.lakeheadu.ca/sites/default/files/uploads/56/docs/Forms/Student-Forms/Feb_2012_Form_only_Leave.Absence.pdf

TIME EXTENSION

A Time Extension in a Doctoral program will be granted for exceptional circumstances on a per term basis up to a four term limit. A student on a time extension is not eligible for any funding from the Faculty of Graduate Studies including Tri-Council and OGS student scholarships.

First Term Time Extension

Recommendations for the first term beyond the allowed Period of Study originate with the Supervisor for approval by the academic unit/program. It is the responsibility of the academic unit/program to send notice, including reasons for this approval, to the Faculty of Graduate Studies.

Second Term up to Fourth Term Time Extensions

Recommendations for the second term up to the fourth term beyond the allowed Period of Study will be forwarded by the academic unit/program to the Faculty of Graduate Studies. These requests will be considered on an individual basis by the Leave/Extension Committee, which will in turn make a recommendation to the Faculty of Graduate Studies Council. The decision to accept, vary, or reject a request lies solely at the discretion of the Faculty of Graduate Studies Council. A graduate student who does not complete all requirements within one of the prescribed Periods of Study and does not receive an approved Time Extension is considered to have failed the program, unless the student applies for and is granted re-admission to the program.

A graduate student who does not successfully complete a Doctoral degree within the prescribed Period of Study and after all approved Time Extensions, must apply for re-admission to the program and pay the application fee. The academic regulations and program requirements in effect at the time of re-entry to the acadmeic program shall apply.

PROGRAM OF STUDY

The requirements of each Doctoral program are described in the Programs sections of the Calendar. Each student in a Doctoral program shall comply with any additional requirements of the academic unit/program in which the student is registered. Individual programs of study must be approved by the appropriate academic unit/program.

Any change to a student's program must be formally requested on the "Graduate Request for Program Change/Withdrawal" form and approved by the Graduate Coordinator and the Faculty of Graduate Studies before being submitted to the Office of the Registrar.

Doctoral Dissertation

A Doctoral dissertation must ensure that breadth of knowledge and skills are acquired by doctoral students through highly specialized, independent, original research which makes a distinct contribution of knowledge to the discipline. The dissertation will be on a subject approved by the appropriate academic unit/program upon the recommendation of the Supervisor following consultation with the student.

The student is required to develop a research proposal for his/her dissertation normally during the first year of the program. The proposal will be reviewed and approved by the Dissertation Committee.

Dissertation Supervisor

A dissertation Supervisor will be appointed at the time of admission by the graduate committee of the academic unit. The Supervisor will be a member of the Faculty of Graduate Studies as Core: Doctoral Supervisory Membership.

Research Ethics and Animal Care Approval

It is the responsibility of the Supervisor to ensure that a dissertation involving human subjects and/or non-human vertebrates is approved, respectively, by the Senate Research Ethics Board, and/or the University Animal Care Committee, before a student's research begins. A copy of the approval notice must be included in the student's file in the Faculty of Graduate Studies. A student who has not received ethical approval from one of the above groups and submitted the approval to the Faculty of Graduate Studies, cannot be approved for graduation.

Dissertation Committee

Each doctoral student shall have the guidance of a Dissertation Committee which will be assembled during the first semester of the initial registration of the student in the Doctoral program. The committee consists of a minimum of three faculty members, at least two of which must be Core members of the Doctoral program with the Supervisor serving as Chair of the committee. The committee will provide research advice, determine the required courses for the student, examine the Doctoral dissertation, and may serve as members of the comprehensive examination committee. The composition of the Dissertation Committee must be approved by the graduate committee of the academic unit/program.

GRADING SYSTEM

Course standings in Doctoral programs will be reported as follows:
A+ 90 to 100%
A 80 to 89%
B 70 to 79%
Fail 1 to 69%
F Academic Dishonesty 0
INC Incomplete
(see University Regulations, V Standing)

MINIMUM SATISFACTORY ACADEMIC STANDING

To maintain registration, a doctoral student must achieve and maintain a minimum academic standing of a 'B' overall average in their courses at all times. A mark of less than 70% in a Doctoral course constitutes failure and such a course (half or full course) may not be repeated. A student whose academic performance does not meet the minimum standing will be required to withdraw from the program.

EXAMINATIONS

Transfer Qualifying Examination
Normally, an applicant to a Doctoral program would be expected to have completed a Master's degree. However, in some programs after the first term of study, students enrolled in a Master's program can request to transfer to a Doctoral program without completion of the Master's program. Students may be required to successfully complete a qualifying examination before being permitted to register in a doctoral program, otherwise the student will remain registered in the Master's program.

A qualifying examination will be arranged as soon as reasonably feasible. The purpose of the qualifying examination is to confirm the student's comprehensive level of competence in fields related to his/her intended field of specialized study. The examination thereby serves as a diagnostic of the student's readiness to undertake Doctoral studies. Upon completion of the qualifying examination, the student will be approved to transfer into the Doctoral program, or in cases of poor comprehensive performance, the student will remain in his/her Master's program.

Special Examinations

Special examinations are not permitted for students in a doctoral program.

Comprehensive Examinations

Comprehensive examinations assess the student's general preparation for the Doctoral degree and assess the knowledge of the student in the research area, the ability to integrate the materials from divergent sources and the ability and potential for carrying out advanced, original research. If the examination has more than one component, all of the components should be completed within a two-week period. As an exception, the joint PhD in Education has a Comprehensive Portfolio. For more information go to: http://www.lakeheadu.ca/academics/graduate/programs/doctoral/educational-studies/node/7252. It is the responsibility of each program to develop detailed procedures for the examination.

The examination will be conducted by the graduate program in which the student is enrolled. The examination committee generally consists of three to six members of the Faculty of Graduate Studies with expertise in the area under examination. As stated above, members of the dissertation committee may serve as members of the examination committee. At least one member of the comprehensive examination committee must be external to the dissertation committee. The Graduate Coordinator (or designate) is normally the Chair of the examination committee and is responsible for arranging the comprehensive examination. If the Graduate Coordinator is also the Supervisor, another member of the Graduate Faculty will be appointed as Chair.

Upon completion of the comprehensive examination, the committee will discuss and vote on the performance of the student. If more than one member of the committee votes negatively, the student is deemed to have failed the examination. The examination committee has the authority to grant a second attempt which must be conducted within six months after the failed attempt. If the student fails the second attempt the student will be withdrawn from the Doctoral program. Students admitted to a Doctoral program without completion of a Master's program who fail the Comprehensive Examination will be permitted, at the discretion of the academic unit, to change their program to the Master's level.

Dissertation Examinations

The examination of a dissertation consists of three phases (see below for details): (1) the internal examination; (2) the external examination by a scholar external to the university with experience relevant to the research areas; and (3) the oral defence of the dissertation.

Doctoral students must first submit their dissertation for internal examination after which it can be submitted to an External Examiner. Once both the Internal and External Examiner's reports have been received by the Faculty of Graduate Studies, with passing outcome, the student can take the oral examination of their dissertation.

If the outcome of the external assessment was unfavourable, the Dissertation Committee Chair shall instruct the Dean of Graduate Studies to arrange for the reconsideration of the dissertation. When the dissertation is resubmitted, the Faculty of Graduate Studies must: (a) resubmit copies to both examiners, instructing them to submit their evaluations by a specified date; (b) send copies of the letter to the examiners to the Graduate Coordinator and the Dissertation Supervisor.

In assessing the dissertation, the Internal and External Examiners will make one of the following reports to the Faculty of Graduate Studies:

1. Accepted
2. Accepted Subject to Revisions
3. Appreciable Revisions Required - A dissertation considered to require appreciable revisions is returned in revised form to the Examiner or re-evaluation through the Office of Graduate Studies.
4. Rejected - With the permission of the Dissertation Committee, the candidate whose dissertation is rejected by either of the examiners will have the option to resubmit the revised dissertation to the original examiner or to an alternative examiner using the above criteria for approval of the Examiner.

The final decision on accepting a dissertation is made by the Dissertation Committee after considering the reports of the Internal and External Examiners. A student has failed the program if the dissertation is rejected following re-examination and consideration by the Dissertation Committee.

Copy Submitted for Examination

The dissertation must be free from typographical, grammatical and other errors when submitted to the Faculty of Graduate Studies for examination. While this is the responsibility of the student, Supervisors should not sign off on dissertations that are not as error free as possible.

Internal Examination

Once the Dissertation Committee has determined that the dissertation is complete, it is submitted to the Internal Examiner. The Internal Examiner is appointed following a procedure established by the academic unit/program. The Internal Examiner's report is submitted to the Faculty of Graduate Studies and to the Supervisor who will make it available to the student as soon as possible. The dissertation may be submitted for external review only if the Internal Examiner has required no more than minor modifications or corrections to the dissertation.

External Examination

At least three (3) months before graduation the completed dissertation is sent to the External Examiner. The External Examiner is recommended by the student's Dissertation Committee and approved by the Dean of Graduate Studies. The External Examiner must have experience relevant to evaluating graduate work, and recent scholarly activity in the area of specialization. The External Examiner needs to be at 'arms length' from the program, the Supervisor and the student which means not a close friend, not a regular and current collaborator, not having been supervised recently by, not having been a visitor/teacher for some time at, and not a former colleague.

Following the approval of the External Examiner, a completed dissertation is submitted by the Supervisor, through the Graduate Coordinator, to the Faculty of Graduate Studies. All correspondence with the External Examiner is conducted by the Faculty of Graduate Studies. Failure to do so could jeopardize the student's completion of the program. The External Examiner's report is submitted to the Faculty of Graduate Studies who will forward final instructions along with the report to the Graduate Coordinator and to the Supervisor who will make it available to the student as soon as possible. A candidate may proceed to the oral defence only if the External Examiner's report has a favourable evaluation. A candidate may proceed to the oral defence only if the External Examiner has required no more than minor modifications or corrections to the dissertation.

Oral Examination

A candidate for a doctoral degree will be required to take a final oral examination upon completion of the dissertation. All procedures for submission of the completed dissertation, as well as for the examiner's reports shall be satisfied before the Oral Defence is scheduled.

Oral Defence Examination Committee

The Examination Committee for the Oral Defence shall normally consist of:

1. Committee Chair - the Chair shall normally be appointed by the Dean of Graduate Studies and is normally not a member of the candidate's academic unit/program. The Committee Chair ensures that the defence is conducted fairly, in accordance with approved guidelines and procedures and ensures that the defence adheres to the time limits indicated in the guidelines. The Chair will only vote in the case of a tie.

2. Graduate Coordinator of the academic unit or designated representative. Where the Graduate Coordinator of the academic unit is also the Supervisor, the Chair of the academic unit shall appoint a designate.

3. Supervisor

4. A minimum of two members of the dissertation committee (in person, by video-conference or teleconference).

5. External Examiner in person, by video-conference, teleconference or by written submisison.

Normally, all members of the Oral Defence Examination Committee shall be present. Quorum shall consist of 50% plus one in addition to the Chair. In the case where quorum is not met the defence must be postponed. Members of the University will normally be invited to attend. Prior to the date of the oral defence, the Graduate Coordinator will ensure that each member of the Examination Committee has a copy of the dissertation and copies of the Examiner's reports for their use during the oral defence.

Oral Defence Order of Events

The Oral Defence Examination Committee shall hold an in-camera meeting before the oral defence. The Committee shall review procedures for the oral defence and confirm that required Committee members are in attendance. In consultation with the Committee, the Chair shall determine the order in which Committee members shall ask questions as well as the approximate time to be allotted to questions. The Committee will also determine how any questions raised by the Examiners will be discussed by the candidate.

The following order will be followed for the Oral Defence:
1. The candidate will make a presentation in accordance with discipline guidelines.
2. The Chair will invite members of the Examination Committee and the University community to ask questions. Normally, the total time for questions will be sixty minutes and shall not exceed ninety minutes.
3. The Chair will ask members of the University community and the candidate to leave the room.
4. The Chair moderates an in-camera session where the Committee members decide the outcome of the dissertation and defence. This meeting should take no more than sixty minutes. The Committee will attempt to arrive at a decision by consensus, but if consensus is not possible, a vote of a majority of members is required. In the event of a tie, the Chair shall cast the deciding vote.

Oral Defence Outcomes

The Oral Defence Examination Committee shall consider both the oral defence and the dissertation when deciding between the following possible outcomes:

1. Dissertation and Oral Defence Accepted.
No changes required beyond the correction of typographical errors and other minor corrections of wording. The candidate's Supervisor shall review and approve the corrections before the final copies of the dissertation are submitted to the Faculty of Graduate Studies.

2. Dissertation and Oral Defence Accepted with Minor Revisions
Minor revisions are required beyond typographical errors and minor corrections of wording. The candidate's Supervisor shall review and approve the corrections before the final copies of the dissertation are submitted to the Faculty of Graduate Studies.

3. Dissertation Accepted and Oral Defence Unacceptable
The candidate may be required to undertake a second oral defence. The Oral Defence Examination Committee Chair shall inform the candidate in writing of the deficiencies in the oral defence and the date of the second oral defence (normally no more than six months).

After the Committee has made its decision, the candidate re-enters the examination room and the Committee Chair conveys the Committee's decision to the candidate. If the decision is favourable, the student proceeds to follow the procedures for submitting the final dissertation copies to the Faculty of Graduate Studies.

DISSERTATION PREPARATION

General Comments

The University requires that all dissertations conform to the specifications given below. Unless the Dean of Graduate Studies has given his/her consent in advance, departures from these norms will render a dissertation unacceptable.

Originality

Elements of the dissertation that are considered to constitute original scholarship and an advancement of knowledge in the domains in which the research was conducted must be clearly indicated.

Components

The dissertation must include:

A detailed table of contents
A brief abstract which provides a concise summary of the dissertation (350 words or less)
An introduction that clearly states the rationale and objectives of the research
A comprehensive review of the literature
Methodology and analysis
A final conclusion and summary
A thorough bibliography or reference list
Appendices, Tables and Figures (if not included previously), as appropriate
An appendix containing an approval of the Research Ethics Board in the case of research involving human subjects or the Animal Care Committee in the case of research involving animal subjects or biohazards.

Title Page

The title page must include:
The title of the dissertation
The name of the author and academic unit/program followed by Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario
The month and year the thesis was submitted
The following statement: "A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of..."
The universal copyright notice

Acknowledgements

An acknowledgements section may be included.

DISSERTATION FORMATTING

The final dissertation in a paper format and electronic format must be submitted to the Faculty of Graduate Studies. The paper version must be produced in a format as outlined below.

Script and Page Format

The dissertation must be typed using a word processor on standard letter size paper (8.5 x 11"). A conventional font (11-point or 12-point) must be used. Line spacing must be double or 1.5. Left-hand margins should have a width of not less than 1.5 inches to facilitate binding. The right-hand margin need not be justified but it should be well defined at approximately 1 inch. The top and bottom margins should be 1 inch.

Paper and Print Quality

The dissertation must be of laser-print quality or letter quality and be printed on standard quality paper. Candidates are encouraged to make double-sided photocopies for the initial submission of the dissertation for examination. However, at least one of the two copies submitted as the final version must be single-sided.

Pagination, Footnotes, References and Appendices

These should conform to the scholarly style appropriate to the discipline. Consistency of formatting is required throughout the dissertation and carefully checked for correct sequence and completeness. All errors must be corrected before final submission of the dissertation to the Faculty of Graduate Studies. It is the responsibility of the student to ensure that page numbering is correct and that all pages of the dissertation are submitted.

Figures and Illustrations

Figures, tables and graphs should be positioned according to the scientific publication conventions of the discipline. Illustrations must be drawn using an ink that permits microfilming and high quality photocopying. For the same reasons, colour-coding is not recommended for graphs and charts. Charts, graphs, maps and tables that are larger than the standard page should be avoided unless absolutely necessary. Overlays must be meticulously positioned in the text.

Photographs

Photographs may be incorporated into the dissertation. The final (single-sided) copy of the dissertation must be black and white throughout. It must include either high-quality black-and-white photocopies or black-and-white reprints of colour photos. High contrast black-and-white photos reproduce well. Photographs with a glossy finish and photographs with dark backgrounds should be avoided.

Additional Materials

Slides, tapes and diskettes are to be avoided if possible and can be included only if the candidate authorizes the reproduction of the dissertation without them.

DISSERTATION SUBMISSION PRIOR TO GRADUATION

The final dissertation in a paper format and electronic format must be submitted to the Faculty of Graduate Studies. The paper version must be produced in a format acceptable to the academic unit/program and as outlined below.

Three unbound copies of the final approved dissertation are to be submitted to the Faculty of Graduate Studies. At least one copy must contain the "Thesis Topsheet" signed by the Supervisor. The signature will signify that all comments made by Examiners have been considered by the author of the dissertation and specified corrections have been made. In addition, the academic unit/program must submit the "Departmental Recommendation" of the dissertation and the form indicating that the dissertation is "Ready for Binding". The student must sign and submit the "License to the University" and the National Library of Canada form.

The graduate student will arrange payment for binding all three copies of the dissertation. One copy will be forwarded to the Library, one to the Supervisor and one to the student. Each student must have completed an "Application to Graduate" form and submitted it to the Office of the Registrar by the deadline dates published in the Academic Schedule.

Withholding of Dissertation

Occasionally, there are unusual circumstances under which a student may prefer that the dissertation not be published. These circumstances may involve the disclosure of patentable rights in the work before a patent can be granted or similar disclosures detrimental to the rights of the author. They may involve disclosures of facts about persons or institutions before professional ethics would permit such disclosures. With the written explanation and endorsement from the student's supervisor and the Graduate Coordinator of the academic unit/program, the Dean of Graduate Studies may, under substantiated circumstances of the kind indicated, permit the dissertation to be withheld from the Library for a period of up to one year. Withholding the dissertation will not affect the student's ability to graduate.

FEES FOR GRADUATE STUDENTS

For information regarding payment of fees, deadlines, methods of payment, refund schedule, miscellaneous fees, schedule of fees, co-op fees, and residence fees, see the Fees section of this Calendar.